Which Of These Organisms Contains No Specialized Cells

Cells fall into one of two broad categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea are classified as prokaryotes (pro = before; karyon- = nucleus). Animal cells, plant cells, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (eu = true).

Components of Prokaryotic Cells

All cells share four common components: (1) a plasma membrane, an outer covering that separates the cell’s interior from its surrounding environment; (2) cytoplasm, consisting of a jelly-like region within the cell in which other cellular components are found; (3) DNA, the genetic material of the cell; and (4) ribosomes, particles that synthesize proteins. However, prokaryotes differ from eukaryotic cells in several ways.

A prokaryotic cell is a simple, single-celled (unicellular) organism that lacks a nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelle. We will shortly come to see that this is significantly different in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic DNA is found in the central part of the cell: a darkened region called the nucleoid (Figure 1).

Unlike Archaea and eukaryotes, bacteria have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, comprised of sugars and amino acids, and many have a polysaccharide capsule (Figure 1). The cell wall acts as an extra layer of protection, helps the cell maintain its shape, and prevents dehydration. The capsule enables the cell to attach to surfaces in its environment. Some prokaryotes have flagella, pili, or fimbriae. Flagella are used for locomotion, while most pili are used to exchange genetic material during a type of reproduction called conjugation.

Refer to more articles:  Which Is Heavier Lead Or Gold

Eukaryotic Cells

In nature, the relationship between form and function is apparent at all levels, including the level of the cell, and this will become clear as we explore eukaryotic cells. The principle “form follows function” is found in many contexts. It means that, in general, one can deduce the function of a structure by looking at its form, because the two are matched. For example, birds and fish have streamlined bodies that allow them to move quickly through the medium in which they live, be it air or water.

A eukaryotic cell is a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound compartments or sacs, called organelles, which have specialized functions. The word eukaryotic means “true kernel” or “true nucleus,” alluding to the presence of the membrane-bound nucleus in these cells. The word “organelle” means “little organ,” and, as we learned earlier, organelles have specialized cellular functions, just as the organs of your body have specialized functions.

Cell Size

At 0.1-5.0 µm in diameter, prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells, which have diameters ranging from 10-100 µm (Figure 2). The small size of prokaryotes allows ions and organic molecules that enter them to quickly spread to other parts of the cell. Similarly, any wastes produced within a prokaryotic cell can quickly move out. However, larger eukaryotic cells have evolved different structural adaptations to enhance cellular transport. Indeed, the large size of these cells would not be possible without these adaptations. In general, cell size is limited because volume increases much more quickly than does cell surface area. As a cell becomes larger, it becomes more and more difficult for the cell to acquire sufficient materials to support the processes inside the cell, because the relative size of the surface area across which materials must be transported declines.

Refer to more articles:  Which Pipe Is Hot And Cold

Related Posts

Which Best Describes The Alternation Of Generations

Alternation of Generations Definition “Alternation of generations is a type of life cycle in which subsequent generations of plants alternate between diploid and haploid organisms.”You may be…

Which Hp Character Are You

Which Hp Character Are You

Answer these 10 questions to find out once and for all, are you Harry, Ron, Hermione? Or are you actually Draco Malfoy?You may be interested Which Drugs…

Which Rna Carries Amino Acids To The Ribosome

An mRNA Sequence Is Decoded in Sets of Three Nucleotides Once an mRNA has been produced, by transcription and processing the information present in its nucleotide sequence…

Which Is Better Moulin Rouge Or Crazy Horse

Which Is Better Moulin Rouge Or Crazy Horse

Burlesque Paris Cabarets are one of the most iconic things to do in Paris and one of the most popular entertainments of Paris at night. Because, YES!…

Which Is Better Butt Or Shank Ham

Which Is Better Butt Or Shank Ham

Whether you’re planning an Easter feast, Christmas dinner or a big Sunday meal, few main courses make an occasion feel as special as ham does. But preparing…

Which Tool Is Used To Manage The Evolution Of Capabilities

There’s innovation in Linux. There are some really good technical features that I’m proud of. There are capabilities in Linux that aren’t in other operating systems.You may…